• Hemograms consist of both quantitative data (total cell counts, differential cell counts, red cell indices, etc.) and qualitative
data (blood film morphology). Proper interpretation depends on the integration of both.
• Proper interpretation also depends upon the development of a systematic approach for both quantitative and qualitative data;
we recommend evaluation of white cells first, followed by red cells, and then platelets.
• For all cell compartments, interpretation can be guided by asking and answering a series of well-designed questions.
• Quantitative data includes total white cell count and differential count
• Qualitative data is white cell morphology
• Key questions include:
o Is there evidence of inflammation?
o Is there evidence of stress?
o Is there evidence of tissue necrosis?
o Is there evidence of systemic hypersensitivity?
o If inflammatory, can the response be classified as acute, chronic, or overwhelming?
o Is there evidence of systemic toxemia?
Is there evidence of inflammation?
• Persistent eosinophilia, monocytosis, and a neutrophilic left shift (increased numbers of immature neutrophils), alone or
in combination, suggest inflammation.
• Total white cell count merely reflects balance between marrow production and tissue utilization; in inflammation, total
white cell counts may be low, normal, or high.
• Absolute neutrophilias of greater than 25,000/μl are also suggestive of inflammation.
Is there evidence of stress (high circulating levels of glucocorticoids)?
• Stress typically results in mild lymphopenia (lymphocyte counts between 750/μl and 1500/μl).
• Eosinopenia, mild neutrophilia, and mild monocytosis may also be present but are less consistent and nonspecific.
Is there evidence of tissue necrosis?
• Monocytosis indicates tissue necrosis and demand for phagocytosis. Monocytosis can occur with acute or chronic inflammation
Is there evidence of systemic hypersensitivity?
• Persistent eosinophilia and/or basophilia is an indicator of systemic hypersensitivity.
• Causes include:
o Parasitic diseases with a systemic component, eg., heartworms, flea bite dermatitis
o Allergic tracheobronchitis in dogs (pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophils)
o Feline asthma
o Allergic gastroenteritis
o Systemic mastocytosis
o Disseminated eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats
o Parasitic disease confined to the intestinal tract (e.g., whip worms) does not cause eosinophilia!!
Can the inflammatory response be classified as acute, chronic, or overwhelming?
• In many cases, inflammatory leukograms cannot be further classified.
• In other cases, the differential cell count is typical of acute, chronic, or overwhelming inflammation.
• These typical patterns reflect changes in leukocyte kinetics, or the balance between white cell production in the marrow
and white cell utilization in the tissues. These changes are controlled by chemotactic factors and cytokines.
• The typical acute inflammatory leukogram is characterized by neutrophilia with increased band cells (a regenerative left
shift), lymphopenia, and variable monocytosis.
o Neutrophilia reflects a large bone marrow storage pool in dogs and cats and the movement of larger numbers of neutrophils
from marrow into blood than are moving from blood into tissues.
o The left shift suggests depletion of the marrow storage pool of neutrophils with the subsequent recruitment of younger cells
o The lymphopenia reflects stress, a common accompaniment of acute inflammatory processes.
o When present, the monocytosis reflects demand for phagocytosis/tissue necrosis.