Medical presentations in neonatal psittacines generally fall into one of the following categories:
• Congenital /developmental
Overlap of these categorizations occurs; for example, nutritional and husbandry issues may predispose birds to infectious
or parasitic disease.
Congenital and/or developmental conditions include:
• Beak abnormalities
o Scissors beak
o Mandibular prognathism
• Constricted toe syndrome
• Choanal atresia
• Crypto-ophthalmia (eyelid agenesis)
• Splay leg
These are usually detected on physical examination. Diagnosis of MBD is generally confirmed via radiographs and/or calcium
or iCa levels.
Husbandry/nutritional diseases include:
• Slow/sour crop
• Crop burns
• Gastrointestinal foreign bodies
• Bacterial enteritis
• Hepatic lipidosis
Infectious pediatric diseases include
• Parasitic – Ascariasis
Brief descriptions of the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of pediatric conditions are listed below.
• Scissors beak
• Mandibular prognathism
Both conditions are seen in young birds. The etiologies are unknown, but developmental problems, including inappropriate
incubation temperature and humidity are possibly involved. The differences in the mechanics of parental feeding vs. human
hand –feeding may contribute to these conditions.
Mild degrees of either condition detected and treated early may be manually manipulated to approximate normal conformation
and function without surgical intervention, More severe degrees of beak deviation and those presented at an older age will
require surgical repair., Many methods of repair have been documented, and details will be illustrated in the lecture.