Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists bind to alpha 2 receptors located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and brainstem, modulating
the release of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and various other neurotransmitters involved in rostral transmission
of nociceptive information. Opioids likely exert their analgesic action through similar modulatory pathways and co-administration
may result in additive or synergistic drug interactions. In humans alpha 2 agonists are often used as "rescue therapy" when
opioid tolerance has developed. Use in surgical patients should be reserved for patients that have been stabilized with normal
Dexdomitor - FDA-approved indications
1. Sedation and analgesia in cats as young as 12 weeks of age
2. Sedation and analgesia in dogs as young as 16 weeks of age
3. As a pre-anesthetic prior to general anesthesia in dogs, for concurrent use with commonly used induction and anesthetic
Sedation and analgesia in cats
A label indication for use in cats is a new feature of Dexdomitor when compared to Domitor. Although Domitor was used in cats
however this was off-label. The dose of dexmedetomidine is approximately 20-40 mcg/kg. The IM route of administration is convenient
when handling stressed patients, but intravenous administration will usually result in a faster onset of action. Dexmedetomidine
is suitable for various short-term feline procedures, specifically for procedures requiring sedation and/or analgesia but
not requiring intubation. The reversal agent atipamezole (Antisedan) is not approved for use in cats, however previous experience
with atipamezole reversal of Domitor in cats suggests it is effective.
Sedation and analgesia in dogs
Flexible dosing is a new label indication for Dexdomitor in dogs. A low dose of 375 mcg/m2 IV vs a higher dose of 500 mcg/m2
IM was approved to facilitate following label directions, yet keeping the dose as low as possible to provide sedation and
analgesia. It should be remembered that reducing the dose does not prevent the cardiovascular changes associated with all
alpha 2 agonists (increased vascular resistance and lowered cardiac output) but should reduce the duration of these effects
and in some individuals reduce the peak effect.
Pre-anesthesia in dogs
Dexdomitor is now FDA-approved for concurrent use with commonly used induction and anesthetic agents, and has proven safe
for use in dogs as young as 16 weeks of age. Although some veterinarians had previously used Domitor as a preanesthetic, this
was extra-label. There are two approved dosing options for use as a preanesthetic: 125 mcg/m2 given IM for cooperative sedation
that allows most dogs to remain ambulatory, a useful option for larger patients or 375 mcg/m2 given IM for deeper sedation,
a useful option for patients requiring procedures of extended duration or associated with severe pain. The choice of preanesthetic
dose depends on patient disposition, severity and duration of procedure, and the anesthetic protocol. It must be remembered
that Dexdomitor markedly reduces anesthetic requirements for all induction drugs including propofol or ketamine and maintenance
using isoflurane or sevoflurane.
Adjunctive analgesic drugs
Adjunctive drugs are typically used for the treatment of chronic pain. They have varying mechanisms of action and provide
an opportunity for utilizing a diverse group of receptor types to treat pain that is refractory to traditional analgesics
such as opioids and NSAIDs. There is increasing interest in the use of some adjunctive drugs in combination with opioids or
NSAIDs for the multimodal treatment of acute pain. The safety and effectiveness of adjunctive drugs are generally not well
studied in veterinary patients therefore responsibility lies with the veterinarian when they are used extra-label.
Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant that has been used for some time in human and veterinary medicine as an adjunctive treatment
for neuropathic pain. Anecdotally, the drug appears effective in a limited number of individuals, but when effective can make
a significant difference in the patient's quality of life. Oral administration of human-labeled capsules or liquids is most
common. Oral bioavailability can vary significantly between individuals; therefore individual dose titration is often required.
When terminating chronic administration, tapered reduction of the dose is recommended over several weeks.