Probiotics are live bacterial preparations, such as dietary supplements or food, which contain beneficial microorganisms,
similar to those found naturally in people and pets. While the health benefits of probiotics have been well documented in
people, specifically in improving gastrointestinal health and helping to enhance immunity, recent studies have only begun
to explore and demonstrate the potential health benefits of probiotics for pets.
Of course, not all probiotics are created equal, as the range and depth of benefits of each probiotic correlate to the species
and strain of the probiotic used. Even different strains of the same species have been noted to vary in a number of ways,
including stability, ability to temporarily colonize the gastrointestinal tract, expression of enzymes, and the production
of inhibitory substances. Fortunately, there are characteristics of effective probiotics to look for when evaluating a probiotic
for clinical use. These characteristics are outlined below.
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Survivability and transient colonization
An effective probiotic first needs to withstand commercial processing and storage to survive transit from the manufacturing
site to the host's possession. Therefore, probiotics that can be stored on shelf have an advantage over those that require
refrigeration, as a low-moisture environment helps to preserve viable molecules. Avoidance of air also aids in the preservation
of viable microbes.
Once digested by the host, the probiotic needs to survive passage through the highly acidic environment of the stomach and
resist digestion by bile to reach, in adequate numbers, the host's intestinal tract. Then, in order to be successful, the
probiotic must adhere to the appropriate sites of the gastrointestinal tract long enough to temporarily colonize. Probiotics
that are native to the target species may be better adapted to adhere and possibly colonize the gastrointestinal tract.
Anti-pathogenic and immune-enhancing effects
Effective probiotics limit the colonization of undesirable bacteria in several ways. Probiotics can limit harmful bacteria
in the gastrointestinal tract by occupying necessary attachment sites and absorbing essential nutrients. Probiotics can also
produce inhibitory substances such as organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric), to regulate undesirable bacteria. The inhibition
of the production or action of bacterial toxins has also been demonstrated by probiotics.1
It is through the combination of these characteristics that the full range of probiotic benefits to the gastrointestinal tract
is achieved. However, it is now recognized that the effects of probiotics extend well beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Many
of these extra-gastrointestinal effects appear to be related to changes in the immune system from probiotic use. Supplementation
with probiotics has the potential to provide benefit to pets with a range of conditions, and research will only continue to
further define the optimal uses of probiotics in pets.
1. Strompfova V, Marcinakova M, Simonova M, et al. Application of potential probiotic Lactobacillus fermentim AD1 strain in healthy dogs. Anaerobe 2006;12:75-79.