Household poisons 1: outline of ten common intoxications (Proceedings) - Veterinary Healthcare
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Household poisons 1: outline of ten common intoxications (Proceedings)


CVC IN SAN DIEGO PROCEEDINGS

It is not uncommon for veterinarians working with companion animals to run into suspected intoxications. There is almost never a lack of potential perpetrators of these dastardly deeds, because of the somewhat morbid, seemingly natural inclination for people to think there is someone who hates them enough to kill their pet. However, clients are often extremely reluctant to consider or are, even possibly, unaware of the wide variety of common household products and "medications", both legal and illegal, which if consumed in large enough quantities, can result in potentially lethal intoxications. Animals most likely to become intoxicated are young, overly curious, bored, hungry, just plain stupid and destined to eventually be a Darwinian phenomenon, and/or any combination of the preceding factors.

In 2008, the most common intoxications about which the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) received inquiries included Human Medications (more than 50,000 calls), Insecticides (31,000 calls), People Food (15,000 calls), Rodenticides (8,000 calls), Veterinary Medications (8,000 calls), Plants (8,000 calls), Chemical Hazards (5,500 calls), Household Cleaners (3,200 calls), Heavy Metals (3000 calls), and Lawn Products (2,000 calls). The purpose of this particular presentation is to provide pertinent information regarding specific toxicants representative of those broad categories, which veterinarians will commonly encounter in their small animal practices. The information outlined below will be presented in an interactive format, which will hopefully be helpful in the diagnosis and management of the intoxications being reviewed.

Some products generally regarded as safe (GRAS)

List of non-toxic substances for dogs and cats

     • Water-based Paints
     • Toilet Bowl Water
     • Silica Gel
     • Cat Litter
     • Glue Traps
     • Glow Jewelry

Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

     • Acetaminophen
     • Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

Cleaning products

     • Household Bleach and Detergents

Antifreeze

     • Ethylene Glycol

Illicit drugs

     • Cocaine and Methamphetaine

Insecticides

     • Carbamate/Organophosporus Insecticides
     • Novel Flea Products
     • Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

Methylxanthines

     • Caffeine
     • Theobromine

Metals

     • Lead
     • Zinc

Molluscacides

     • Metaldehyde

Nicotine

     • Tobacco Products/Nicotine Gums and Patches

Rodenticides

     • Anticoagulant Rodenticides
     • Bromethalin
     • Strychnine
     • Zinc Phosphide

Helpful references for busy small animal practitioners

Books

Gfellar RW, Messonnier SP: Handbook of Small Animal Toxicology and Poisoning, 2nd Edition. St. Louis, Mosby, 2004.

Peterson ME, Talcott P (Eds): Small Animal Toxicology. St. Louis, Elsevier-Saunders, 2006.

Plumlee KH: Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. St. Louis, Mosby, 2004.

Websites

http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/

http://hpd.nlm.nih.gov/

http://www.ivis.org/%20/

http://www.snopes.com/

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