Interpretation of the fundus (Proceedings) - Veterinary Healthcare
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Interpretation of the fundus (Proceedings)


CVC IN BALTIMORE PROCEEDINGS


Direct Fundic Exam
• Start 1.5-2" away at 0 D setting
• Rotate wheel toward negative (red) until fundus near disk is visible (-2to-4D)
• Examine fundus in quadrants
• Re-focus to evaluate optic disk
• Usually within 1D of fundus focus, more neg. means disk depression, more pos. is elevation
• Advantages: simple, inexpensive instrument, upright image, greater magnification, depth and height can be determined with diopter settings

Review of Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
• Ophthalmoscopes
• Lenses
• Virtual Image
• Arms length & 5 cm
• Organized approach to exam
o Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
• Using a lens and light source to view a projected image of fundus
• Lenses of varying dioptric strength can be used
• Smaller diopter rating=greater magnification
• Light source can be from trans-illuminator held near examiner's eye or from binocular indirect system
• Image is inverted with R-L reversal or "upside down and backwards"
• Organized Approach
• Optic Nerve
• Retinal Vasculature
• 4 Quadrants
• Record Each Eye
o Instrumentation
o Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
o Normal Feline Fundus
o Normal Canine Fundus
o Normal Variation
• Optic Nerve
• Tapetal Color
• Non tapetal color
• Vasculature

Common Fundus Abnormalities
• Blastomycosis
• Toxoplasmosis
• Collie Eye Anomoly (Cea)
• Detachment
• Progressive Retinal Atropy (Pra)
• Glaucoma Cupping

Erg Equipment
• Photostimulator
• Sensors
• Amplifier
• Physiograph
• Printer
o Electroretinogram - Normal
o Electroretinogram - Extinguished

Fundus Abnormality
• Choroidal Hypoplasia
• Collie Eye Anomaly
• CEA
• Coloboma
• Retinal Detachment
• Chorioretinitis
• Granulomatous
• Coccidioidomycosis
• Chorioretinitis
• Serous-multifocal
• Cryptococcosis
• Granulomatous
• Histoplasmosis
• Pre-retinal hemorrhage
• E. canis
• Multifocal hyperreflective
• Old Inflammation
• Pigment Proliferation and hyperreflectivity
• Old chorioretinitis
• Change in vessel color
• Lipemia retinalis


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Source: CVC IN BALTIMORE PROCEEDINGS,
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