Classification of canine vaccines
Practitioners may choose to vaccinate with most or all of the vaccines available, with the belief that prevention is better
than treating the disease. In the 1960s through the early 1980s, this practice was common and quite easy, as the only vaccines
available were DHLPP and rabies. Today there are more vaccine products, new antigens, different combinations, and even different
disease patterns than in the past. It is now virtually impossible to vaccinate every dog with every available product. To
address this increase in number and complexity, vaccines are now categorized as core, noncore, and not recommended. As the names imply, vaccines that all dogs should receive are core, while noncore are optional based on lifestyle, local disease
prevalence, and risk/benefit ratios. The third category of "not recommended" has proven to be controversial, as some common
vaccine products that are actively marketed by vaccine companies are now discouraged.
Core vaccines include distemper, parvo, adenovirus type 2, and rabies. Vaccines classified as noncore and not recommended
are discussed below.
Parainfluenza virus (CPIV)
The 2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines changed CPIV from "recommended" to "noncore", presumably because the disease caused
by the virus (usually a self-limiting cough) is mild. The parenteral (injectable) MLV vaccines are given to puppies at the
same schedule as CDV, CAV-2, and CPV as they are only sold in combination. Topical (intranasal) MLV vaccines are marketed
in combination with Bordetella with or without CAV-2. Very few studies have been performed on CPIV infection or the protection
offered by vaccines. One study demonstrated protection from challenge 13 months after intranasal vaccination with Bordetella
and parainfluenza. Dogs at risk of exposure should ideally be vaccinated with an IN products at least one week prior to boarding,
traveling, etc. A 3-year revaccination interval is recommended after a puppy series and a 1-year booster.
Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb)
This vaccine is available as a live avirulent bacterin for topical (intranasal) use or as a parenteral (injectable SC) cell
wall antigen extract. Bb causes infectious tracheobronchitis ("kennel cough") which is often mild and self-limiting but occasionally
can lead to pneumonia or other severe complications. As a noncore vaccine, dogs at risk of exposure should be vaccinated.
The topical products should be given as a single dose according to label instructions (as early as 3 weeks of age depending
on type). A second dose can be given 2-4 weeks later for best results. Annual revaccination is recommended or even more often
in high-risk animals. A booster is suggested 1 week before exposure if more than 6 months has elapsed since the last Bb vaccine.
Duration of immunity is at least 12-13 months based on two studies. There are no studies suggesting extended intervals such
as every 3 years. Transient coughing, sneezing, or nasal discharge is occasionally seen as a post-vaccination adverse reaction.
Injectable Bb vaccine is recommended for puppies at 8 and 12 weeks of age followed by annual revaccination. In high-risk environments,
every 6 months is suggested as a booster interval. As with IN vaccines, a booster is helpful given 1 week before exposure.
There is no benefit in vaccination with both IN and SC on the same day. However, giving both products in sequence every 2
weeks was shown in one study to provide excellent protection (the injectable vaccine used in that study is no longer available).
Dogs previously vaccinated or exposed to the "kennel cough" organisms may have high antibody levels and sufficient immunity
that makes "boosters" questionable as to efficacy.
This disease does not appear to be a threat in all areas but incidence has been increasing in the U.S. The risk of contracting
lepto is assumed to be from exposure to wildlife or even urban pests such as squirrels, mice, and rats. Rainfall and moist
conditions appear to increase the incidence. Many more dogs are exposed than become clinically ill, and asymptomatic dogs
may shed lepto spirochetes in the urine. For at-risk puppies and dogs, one vaccination at 12 weeks followed by a second at
14-16 weeks is recommended. Annual boosters, or even at 6-9 month intervals for high exposure situations, are recommended.
There is currently no evidence of long DOI. In one study of a bivalent vaccine (L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae),
dogs were protected 56 weeks after vaccination at 9 and 13 weeks of age.
Currently, two products include additional serovars (pomona and grippotyphosa) (Duramune 4/L, Fort Dodge and 4L, Pfizer).
Recent studies suggest that these two serovars are responsible for most of the clinical disease diagnosed rather than the
original serovars found in all lepto vaccines. However, because of cross-reactivity in diagnostic assays, the exact serovar
causing an infection is speculative (based on high Ab titer responses) rather than proven. Practitioners often ask if leptospirosis
is a problem in their practice area and whether routine vaccination is worthwhile. The risk:benefit ratio is somewhat different
for lepto vaccines than for other products, as adverse reactions in puppies, toy breeds and small dogs is more common. Because
there is no central reporting database for veterinarians to refer to, questions about prevalence in an area should be directed
to diagnostic labs at nearby veterinary schools or state facilities. If practices with large caseloads are seeing clinical
leptospirosis, or if labs in the area are diagnosing positives, then vaccination is recommended. Otherwise, lepto may be safely
omitted from routine protocols. No vaccine is 100% protective and there is a potential for infection by other serovars not
covered in the vaccines (such as bratislava and autumnalis).
Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi, borreliosis)
Several types of vaccines are currently available, including whole cell bacterins, recombinant-outer surface protein A (rLyme
or OspA) products, and bacterins containing OspA and OspC. Lyme disease is considered endemic in parts of the Northeast and
upper Midwest, and also occurs in the Pacific Northwest and eastern seaboard. Some areas of the country are free of Lyme disease
unless humans or animals have traveled to other areas. The noncore status is likely due to this geographic limitation along
with the fact that Lyme disease is nonfatal and treatable (with the exception of Lyme nephritis, an emerging complication).
Puppies at risk are vaccinated at 9 to 12 weeks of age followed by a second dose 2-4 weeks later (manufacturer recommendations
should be followed). Annual revaccination, preferably just before tick season, is recommended. Extended DOI are not appropriate.
Only a minimum 1 year protection from challenge has been shown.
There is much debate over the usefulness of Lyme disease vaccines, especially in seropositive dogs (those that have a positive
Ab titer to Borrelia due to previous exposure). In endemic areas, the majority of dogs are seropositive but asymptomatic.
Some experts recommend avoiding Lyme vaccine in any dog testing positive for Ab. Other experts feel it may help both with
current disease and as protection against future infections. Further research is needed to clarify this issue. There is a
consensus that tick control is at least as important as vaccination in Lyme-endemic areas.