1. If you don't look, you don't know.
It's not enough to take radiographs if you don't take the views that you need to provide essential information. A series
of radiographs will be reviewed that demonstrate the pitfall of omitting key information. Other examples of omission of key
information will also be examined.
2. What you see is not always what you get.
How many times have you identified bacteria on a urinalysis, but failed to grow any organisms with a urine culture? Examples
of cases will be given which offer explanations for this circumstance and other puzzling results.
3. Insanity is expecting to achieve a more favorable result with the same approach that has failed to produce the desired
result multiple times.
When the administration of multiple antibiotics doesn't resolve persistent clinical signs such as hematuria it's time to take
a fresh look at the problem. Ideas for resolving hematuria and other annoyingly persistent clinical problems will be presented.
4. It may look like a duck, quack like a duck, and walk like a duck, but sometimes it's only a distant relative.
Sometimes renal failure isn't as straight forward as it seems. Case examples will be given as illustrations.
5. Just because you can do something, doesn't mean you should do something.
Some urinary tract abnormalities may warrant monitoring rather than direct intervention. Criteria will be given for determining
when monitoring the patient is a better option than treatment in select cases.
Points to remember about urinalyses and bacterial identification:
• Ideally urine samples should be evaluated within 30 minutes of obtaining the specimen.
• Urine should be refrigerated until examination is possible. It should be gradually warmed to room temperature prior
• Ideally both an unstained specimen and a stained specimen should be examined. Determination of the presence of bacteria
is best done on a stained specimen.
• When bacteria are not cultured from a urine sample which was believed to contain bacteria on sediment examination,
operator error is the most common reason for that circumstance to occur.
• Obtaining an accurate bacterial culture from urine may be facilitated by using transport tubes to inhibit growth of
contaminants or by performing in-house plating of urine.
What can I do about recurring urinary tract infections and FLUTD?
• First review the therapy attempted previously:
1. Was a culture with a sensitivity performed by an appropriate method for the suspected site of infection?
2. Does the patient have an untreated or inadequately treated concurrent disease predisposing the pet to UTI (relapse
3. Are you certain that the owner has been carrying out treatment appropriately?
4. Was the duration of therapy inadequate due to the presence of a complicating factor such as:
a. the presence of a treated or untreated concurrent predisposing disorders
b. the patient being an intact, male dog
c. administration of medication for other conditions that interferes with successful antibiotic eradication
d. inaccurate localization of site of infection?
• If recurring urinary tract infection remains a problem in spite of addressing the above factors or because a predisposing
factor cannot be eliminated, you may wish to try long-term low-dose therapy (1/3 of typical daily antibiotic dose given once
a day in the evening for 6 months or pulse therapy (typical antibiotic dose one week out of every month or 3days out of every
week indefinitely). Changing to a different class ofantibiotics to achieve greater tissue penetration may also be helpful.
For prevention, especially of E. coli, consider the use of a urinary antiseptic once the UTI is undercontrol (methenamine hippurate- 500 mg/dog PO q12 hrs or 250
mg/cat PO q12 hrs).Methenamine will not be effective with urease-producing organisms like Staph and often requires a urinary acidifier to be given concurrently to be effective.
• Canine and feline Enterococcal UTIs Enterococcus organisms are gram positive, catalase negative cocci. This type of bacteria can be part of the normal flora of the GI and
biliary tracts. Enterococcus is commonly found in patients that have received antibiotics and can be associated with urinary catheterization Antibiotics
that have been found to be effective are amoxicillin, (90% effective), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (90% effective), imipenem
(90% effective), and enrofloxacin (50% effective). Some Enterococcal infections are resistant to common antibiotics. Recommendations
for resistant/recurring infections with Enterococcus are as follows: