Grzanna MW, Ownby SL, Heinecke LF. Inhibition of cytokine expression and prostaglandin E
production in monocyte/macrophage-like cells by avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and chondroitin sulfate. J Complement Integr Med 2010;7(1):art 10 (doi:10.2202/1553-3840.1338).
The monocyte/macrophage cells used in this study are a surrogate for the macrophage-like cells located in the synovial lining.
They, like chondrocytes and other joint cells, release inflammatory mediators, such as PGE2, which then stimulate the release of cartilage-degradative enzymes. In cytokine or lipopolysaccharide-activated cells, pre-incubation
with the combination of NMX1000® avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) and TRH122® chondroitin sulfate significantly decreased
expression of IL-1β and TNF-α and production of PGE2 versus those pre-incubated with either ASU or chondroitin sulfate alone. ASU with chondroitin sulfate was also shown to inhibit
nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-κB. This transcription factor regulates many inflammatory mediators.
Translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus activates the inflammatory pathway involved in osteoarthritis. This
study supports the use of both ASU and chondroitin sulfate in joint health management.
Heinecke LF, Grzanna MW, Au AY, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E
production in chondrocytes by avocado soybean unsaponifiables and epigallocatechin gallate. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18(2):220-227.
NMX1000® ASU combined with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an extract from decaffeinated green tea with antioxidant effects,
at clinically relevant concentrations lowered COX-2 expression in IL-1β/TNF-α-activated chondrocytes to levels similar to
those of non-activated controls. PGE2 production was also noted to be significantly inhibited by the ASU and EGCG combination. The combination was more effective
than either ASU or EGCG alone. Effects on COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were correlated with a decrease in nuclear translocation of NF-κB. This study provides substantiation for the
use of ASU and EGCG, both found in the product Dasuquin®, in supporting joint health.
Grzanna MW, Heinecke LF, Au AY, et al. Down-regulation of PGE
production in cytokine activated feline chondrocytes by the combination of ASU, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate compared
to meloxicam. 36th Annual Conference VOS 2009;poster.
Effects of NMX1000® ASU, FCHG49® glucosamine, and TRH122® chondroitin sulfate in combination in inhibiting PGE2 production in IL-1β/TNF-α-activated feline chondrocyte cultures were similar to effects of the NSAID meloxicam.
Frondoza CG, Heinecke L, Grzanna MW. Modulation of metalloproteinase expression by the combination of avocado soy unsaponifiables,
glucosamine hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate. ICRS 2009 - 8th World Congress;P59.
This in vitro study involved matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that degrade the cartilage matrix. MMPs are present
in the joints in an inactive and active form. In the study, activation of chondrocytes with the cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α
shifted the levels of MMP-9 from a higher amount of inactive to a higher amount of active enzyme. When NMX1000® ASU, FCHG49®
glucosamine, and TRH122® chondroitin sulfate were added, however, this shift was attenuated. Results show that these agents