Over the last several decades we have witnessed tremendous changes in dairy production systems. A traditional concept that
the food animal practitioner could focus primarily on traveling to farms and treating diseased animals has long since been
overshadowed by a more complex picture. Dramatic changes have been made in management, nutrition and genetics of our cattle
population, in order to increase productivity. Our profession has responded by moving towards 'production oriented' practices,
and has changed its view of the importance of certain types of animal problems. We increasingly recognize the importance of
suboptimal performance that occurs without overt disease, the occurrence of metabolic and production related diseases and
a variety of management problems that limit operation profitability.
Ongoing scientific advancements have also influenced our perception of infectious diseases and our methods of dealing with
them. It has been easy for some of us to assume that vaccine improvements make infections ever more preventable, and antibiotic
improvements make these diseases ever more treatable. The extent to which our profession seems to have bought into these assumptions
It appears that there are numerous health challenges on modern dairies that leave cows at high risk of subsequent culling
or death as likely outcomes. The reasons for removal of cows for slaughter are closely related to the causes of death, and
most of these are representative of health issues that can be improved.
There are some subclinical metabolic or physiologic problems faced by many cows in modern dairy systems that could predispose
to poor outcomes in the face of disease challenges. These include subclinical hypocalcemia, subacute ruminal acidosis, negative
energy balance and metabolic disease in early lactation, trace mineral and vitamin deficiency, poor immune responsiveness
in the postpartum period, and feed quality problems that induce gastrointestinal disturbances.
Other studies have identified clinically recognizable health problems that increase the risk of death or culling in dairy
cows, such as calving difficulty, ketosis/fatty liver disease, coliform mastitis, milk fever, and paratuberculosis. The severity
of these diseases in individual animals is highly influential on the outcome. Since most dairy health programs do not monitor
or analyze the severity or impact of these diseases, dairies lack the tools needed to associate occurrence with final outcome
and may fail to manage the problems appropriately. Differences in outcomes for individual cows may result from failure to
apply readily available evaluation and treatment methods appropriate to the specific disease and severity of disease.
Most changes in the dairy industry are done with the intent to decrease cost of inputs into the system. Some examples include
increased size and scale of dairy operations, changes in the labor and labor management inputs, changes in veterinary relationship
with the dairy. Without question, these changes that increased overall dairy productivity and maintained decreased cost input
relative to the overall production.
Most decisions in a low-cost production model are made with economics is the primary driving force, and potential negative
impacts on the animals in the production system are seen as problems that must be managed as a consequence of the necessary
change. And in fact numerous animal health problems remain prevalent, and even increase with time. There is a real need for
the dairy industry and dairy veterinarians to reevaluate dairy management systems with a focus on optimum animal health.
A different business model may be required for improvement of animal well-being on dairies, while maintaining dairy profitability.
Total quality management is a business system that has been adopted by almost all industrial and manufacturing systems in
the United States. Adopting such a business model would require a significant shift in mindset of producers and veterinarians.
It should also provide increased balance in decision-making with animal well-being included as a significant component of
An overview of the health challenges faced by dairy cows needs to recognize that changes in the modern dairy industry could
lead to systematic problems with animal care. The labor force on most dairies is primarily composed of low wage workers without
extensive, preexisting dairy cow management skills. The ability of dairy personnel to adequately identify disease in individual
animals and respond with prompt individual animal attention is limited by the extent of their experience and training. The
overwhelming majority of sick cows on dairies are identified, diagnosed, and treated by farm workers, rather than veterinarians.
Poor outcomes could be an issue of poor clinical disease management in addition to any preexisting problem with cow physiology.