As applied to animals, the terms anxieties, fears and phobias refer to a continuum. Anxieties are vague general reactions
of uncertainty, fears are reactions to specific objects or stimuli, and phobias are extreme or irrational fears out of proportion
to the real threat of the stimulus. Some authorities would reserve the concept of phobias for humans as a pathological syndrome,
with a verbal component that cannot be applied to animals.
Probably most fear- or anxiety-related reactions of animals stem from normal reactions to stimuli or situations which, in
a natural wild environment, would be adaptive. This is true of fear reactions to loud auditory stimuli and to strangers, as
well as separation anxiety and submissive urination. Through habituation, and possibly maturation, these emotional reactions
diminish. Adverse experiences with specific stimuli, such as with abuse by a person or persons may result in fear reactions
or enhancement of normal fears.
The therapeutic goal is to desensitize the emotional reactions through habituation or extinction of acquired fears using structured
training sessions and remove any reward the animal may get from displaying the emotional reaction.
These topics are discussed extensively in Hart, Hart and Bain,
Canine and Feline Behavior Therapy
, 2nd edition, 2006, Blackwell Press.
This is a common problem in families where both adults work. It is the first problem behavior for which a psychotropic drug
was approved in the U.S.
There usually is an occurrence of several types of misbehavior, including chewing woodwork and furniture, excessive vocalization,
inappropriate urination and defecation, indicating that the dog is emotionally upset when left alone by the owners. These
signs occur also as manifestations of other problems. The main diagnostic feature is that these signs occur only when the
owner is gone. Usually these signs occur within the first few minutes of the owner's departure. Sometimes owners give excessive
attention to the dog prior to departures and upon returning, which may enhance the contrast between the owner being at home
and away. Most signs of separation distress occur within 30 minutes of separation.
The primary diagnostic challenge is to confirm that the problem behaviors occur when the dog is left alone. Differentiate
separation anxiety from other types of anxiety (noise phobia), boredom, inappropriate elimination, urine marking, and cognitive
dysfunction. An easy way to do this is videotape the animal when the owner is gone.
Counsel the owners - The dog is not doing these behaviors "out of spite" or because "he's mad that we left him." This is an anxiety and the animal
is in distress.
Eliminate anxiety - During the treatment program it is important to eliminate the anxiety that the dog feels when it is left alone. Except during
planned departures have one of the owners take him to work with them, find a doggy day care in your area or board the dog
at your clinic. The reasoning behind this is so the dog does not continue to panic when at home, continually relearning these
reactions and behaviors there.
a distancing program - Choose a place, such as a special mat, which will be used for this part of the program. Put the dog on the mat and have him
stay. Start out with a short period of time. This could be as short as 2-3 seconds if necessary. Then release him/her. Gradually
increase the length of time the dog stays on the mat, up until about 15 minutes or so. Then the owners should start to increase
the distance they move from their dog during the stay.
Eventually the owners will be able to move into another room while the dog is staying on the mat. Start with just a second
or two, then increase the time away, and gradually the owners should close the door behind them. Once that is accomplished,
they can work toward stepping out of the house while the dog stays. They should start getting closer to the door, touching
the door, jingling the handle, opening the door, etc., etc.