The crystalline lens is a remarkable structure. As with the cornea, nature found a way to arrange living cells such into an optically transparent structure. The purpose of the lens is to serve as a final focus of light entering the eye onto the retina and to accommodate focus for near and far images.
The eyelids of domestic animals have many important functions. They are important in protecting the globe, contributing to and spreading the tear film, and preventing the buildup of ocular pathogens and environmental debris. This article will review the basics of eyelid anatomy and function as well as discuss common problems associated with these structures
Ocular emergencies are not commonly seen in general practice, but prompt recognition of the problem may allow for preservation of vision and/or the globe as a whole. This discussion will review five conditions that should be treated as an emergency and how to manage them properly.
Ophthalmology is a unique specialty because nearly all the ocular structures can be directly visualized. Modern equipment allows a detailed and highly magnified evaluation of the interior of the eye. Furthermore, many systemic diseases are first manifested as an ocular problem. For these reasons, a thorough eye exam can be very rewarding. This discussion will review basics of the ophthalmic exam.
Most conditions in ophthalmology have a strong connection to genetics. Often a diagnosis can be made by knowing only the breed, age, and presenting complaint. There are some conditions that are common to one breed but rarely if ever seen in another. This review will list the most notable genetic conditions for each region of the eye.
The glaucomas are a group of conditions in dogs characterized by increased intraocular pressure and progressive optic nerve and retinal degeneration. This can be one of the most devastating and frustrating ophthalmic conditions, both for the general practitioner and the ophthalmologist. This article will discuss the current clinical understanding of glaucoma and the treatment options.