Diagnosing cases of acute or intermittent diarrhea: Giardiasis, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis, Tritrichomonas foetus, and cryptosporidiosis (Proceedings)
Aug 01, 2009
CVC IN KANSAS CITY PROCEEDINGS
Giardia, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhea in dogs and cats. Tritrichomonas foetus is an important problem in cats. These disorders should be investigated early in the course of diarrhea, whether it is persistent or intermittent, along with evaluation for dietary causes of GI signs, nematode parasites, bacterial and viral causes, and acute idiopathic colitis. This group of disorders constitutes a thorough differential list for animals with acute and intermittent diarrhea (Table 1).
Giardia is an important cause of diarrhea, and for some patients other GI signs as well. It is an important pathogen in dogs and cats, as well as humans and other species. Historically, accurate diagnosis of Giardia has posed a significant challenge to veterinary practitioners, but there are now much more sensitive tests readily available for veterinarians to use on a routine basis. Because of the impact that this organism can have on animals, and also humans because of its zoonotic potential, it is important that veterinarians perform accurate diagnostic testing on animals to determine whether or not an animal is infected with Giardia. These notes will emphasize steps for accurate diagnosis, and also management of giardiasis.Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis is a common cause of intermittent diarrhea in dogs and cats. Veterinary practitioners should test for the enterotoxin whenever faced with a patient that has unexplained diarrhea.
Diagnosis and management of Giardia
Standard diagnostic tests used in any practice setting should include fresh saline fecal smears and zinc sulfate flotation with centrifugation. Zinc sulfate flotation with centrifugation, rather than gravity flotation alone, is a somewhat more sensitve means of testing for Giardia and other parasites. Trophozoites are more likely to be found in loose stools, while cysts are more often found in semi-formed or formed stools. Performing both zinc sulfate concentration with centrifugation and a Giardia antigen test together constitutes the most accurate means of evaluating a patient for the presence of Giardia. This has been recognized as the "gold standard" in human medicine, and is true also in veterinary medicine.