Feline nutrition: Understanding how to feed cats for obesity prevention and weight management (Sponsored by NestléPurina)
Obesity is a growing problem in cats worldwide, but, in Western societies, the incidence of excess weight and obesity in cats is reaching truly worrisome numbers. Studies have indicated that 15% to 35% of cats in the United States are overweight or obese, and practitioners estimate even higher percentages in some areas.1 Obesity is defined as having a body weight 20% or more above the ideal weight. In other words, a 4-kg (9-lb) cat that gains 1 kg (2 lb) is considered obese. Using this definition, it would not be surprising for feline obesity to approach 70% in some practices. Furthermore, obesity is not just a cosmetic problem. In cats, it increases the risk of diabetes and hepatic lipidosis and is associated with increased incidences of many other conditions, such as lower urinary tract disease and osteoarthritis.2 This serious medical condition not only increases morbidity, but can also shorten life span. Considering the number of affected cats and the challenge of getting a seriously obese, 12-kg (26-lb) cat to weigh 4.5 kg (10 lb), it is obvious that the situation demands our full attention.
To successfully address feline obesity, practitioners must recognize obesity as more than just overeating but as an endocrinopathy, and they must be able to develop safe and effective weight loss programs and help every member of the veterinary team understand how important it is to prevent young cats from gaining excess weight in the first place.
Obesity as a multifactorial, multisystemic diseaseThe most obvious reason for any animal becoming obese is that it is consuming more energy than it is expending. In cats, this energy imbalance can occur when there is an excessive intake of calories (food or treats) or a reduction in energy expenditure (reduced activity because of an indoor lifestyle, illness, or injury). However, there are many other factors that play significant roles in the development of obesity. These factors include genetic predisposition, sex, neuter status, hormonal disturbances, and other conditions that can influence or control appetite, metabolism, and homeostasis. As a result, it is important to: