Female breeding soundness examination (Proceedings)


Female breeding soundness examination (Proceedings)

Nov 01, 2009


The time spent on history taking is the most important time devoted to a case.

Clinical examination of the bitch

  • Complete physical should be performed to identify disorders of non-reproductive systems.
  • Palpation of uterus - ultrasonographic examination or radiographs
  • Inspect vulvar conformation.
  • Vaginal

     o Digital
     o Speculum
  • Examination of the mammary chain by palpation
  • Brucella canis serology test

     o Screening test
     o Titer
  • Thyroid testing should be performed in all dogs presented for infertility.

Vaginal cytology

  • Clinical Uses

     o To estimate progression toward first day of estrus in bitch that is being shipped for breeding
     o To correlate endocrinological and behavioral states in the bitch that has been subfertile
     o To determine infectious or inflammatory conditions of the reproductive tract

Bacterial culture

  • Vagina

     o Bacteria normally present
     o Guarded swab
     o Obtain when cervix is open (?)
     o Obtain before cytology (take sample)
     o Interpretation
     o Other signs of disease important
  • Uterus

     o No bacteria present
     o Exploratory


  • Examine reproductive tract

     o Digitally and visually
  • Culture uterus
  • Full thickness biopsy
  • Swab both horns

Endocrine assays

  • Progesterone

     o Starts to rise before ovulation
     o Peaks at 4 weeks after onset of estrus
  • Estradiol 17-Beta

     o Not useful
  • Thyroxine (TT4)

     o Range 15 to 50 nmol/L
     o Depends on laboratory
  • Triiodothyronine (TT3)

     o 1.0 to 2.5 nmol/L
  • Free T4 by dialysis

     o 9.0 to 40 pmol/L
  • T4 autoantibody

     o < 20
  • T3 autoantibody

     o 10
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

     o < 30 mU/L
  • Thyroglobulin autoantibody

     o < 200 %