Fluid analysis: cytology and biochemical tests (Proceedings)


Fluid analysis: cytology and biochemical tests (Proceedings)

Aug 01, 2011

Fluid analysis

• Cytology of cavity fluids
• Cell counts
• Biochemical analysis
• Microscopy

Body cavity fluid analysis


• Peritoneal cavity: hydroperitoneum***
• Pleural cavity: hydrothorax***
• Joint cavity: joint effusions
• Bronchoalveolar lavage/tracheal wash
• Cerebrospinal fluid
***most common

Effusion: escape of fluid into body cavities or tissues

• Transudation
     o Pure – Low oncotic pressure due to hypoalbuminemia
     o Modified – increased hydrostatic pressure due to venous stasis or impaired lymphatic drainage
• Exudation
     o Inflammatory – increased vascular permeability due to inflammation
• Other effusions:
     o Hemorrhagic
     o Chylous
     o Neoplastic
     o Uroabdomen

Body cavity fluid analysis

• Cell Concentration
     o Electronic cell counter or hemocytometer
• Protein concentration
     o estimated by refractometer
• Types of cells present?
     o Inflammatory? Organisms? Neoplastic?

Transudate v exudate?

• Protein
• Cell count


• Low protein
• Low cell count
• Created by transudation of fluid secondary to hypoalbuminemia