New drugs in veterinary dermatology (Proceedings)
In the field of veterinary medicine we see a constant search for newer, more effective, and convenient but inexpensive drugs with lesser side effects. Not only new drugs are interesting, but old drugs are occasionally rediscovered for new indications. Although many of the new approved drugs available have been thoroughly investigated, reports of the use of older drugs or the use of a newer drugs for a different indication are often based on anecdotal reports and need to be further investigated in controlled studies.
Cefovecin sodium (Convenia; 80 mg/ml)
This is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin with bactericidal effect which inhibits bacterial cell wall syntheses and is relatively resistant to bacterial beta-lactamases. Its main antibacterial spectrum is: gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella), gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococci & Streptococci.). Cefpodoxime is not effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staph. Poor efficacy has been shown against anaerobes.
This 3rd generation cephalosporin (antimicrobial activity, see Cefovecin)
Chloramphenicol (Duricol; 50 mg, 100 mg or Viceton; 250 mg, 500 mg)
Broad spectrum antibiotic inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Gram-positive aerobic organisms (Streptococci, Staphylococci) are generally susceptible, and many anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium) and organisms such as Nocardia, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia are sensitive to chloramphenicol.
Cyclosporine (Atopica; 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg; Neoral; 100 mg/ml)
CsA is a naturally produced (fungus: Tolypocladium inflatum) calcineurin inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties focused on cell-mediated immune response.
Tacrolimus (Protopic; 0.1% or 0.3% ointment)
This is a topical calcineurin inhibitor with similar mechanism as cyclosporine. Advantage of calcineurin inhibitors compared to steroids is their lack of cutaneous atrophy and metabolic effects.