Practical information from ACVIM research: not yet in print (Proceedings)
Anemia predicts progression of chronic kidneydisease in newly diagnosed azotemic cats.
S Chakrabarti, H Syme, J Elliott. Royal Veterinary College, London, UK.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is common in geriatric cats but often appears stable for long periods of time. Several studies have evaluated prognostic markers in cats with CKD, but few have identified which ones precede disease progression. The aim of this study was to find a marker which would predict deterioration of renal function in cats newly diagnosed with CKD.Feline CKD cases were recruited between 1992 and 2009 through geriatric cat clinics held at two first opinion practices. Diagnosis was based on concurrent findings of plasma creatinine > 2 mg/dl and urine specific gravity (USG) < 1.035, with persistence of azotemia for 2 weeks. All cases were first screened using objective criteria and then classified by two clinicians. Renal function was approximated using the reciprocal of plasma creatinine concentration (1/creatinine) and linear regression was used to assess changes over time.
Cats which developed hyperthyroidism were excluded from the study and urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (UPCs) from urine samples with a positive urine culture outcome were not used in the analyses. Baseline variables at diagnosis were assessed for associations with progression using binary logistic regression.
In total, 52 progressive and 42 non-progressive cases were identified out of 118 cases which passed the initial screening criteria.
Lower packed cell volumes (PCVs) were associated with progression (OR: 0.916, 95%CI: 0.853–0.985, n 5 90, p 5 0.017). The median PCV for the progressive group was 32(IQR 29–36)% versus 36(IQR 34–41)% for the non-progressive group. The groups were matched for the degree of azotemia at diagnosis, with a median plasma creatinine concentration of 2.46 and 2.51 mg/dl for the non progressive group. Plasma creatinine, urea, USG, UPC , and potassium, did not predict CKD progression. The results of this study suggest that newly diagnosed cases of azotemic CKD which have low PCV values are more likely to progress. Thus, anemia may serve as a marker for cats which have more severe types of renal disease or may itself contribute to progression via hypoxic injury.
The effect of in vivo treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and meloxicam on platelet aggregation in cats.
C Cathcart, BM Brainard, SC Budsberg. University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA.
This study documents the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 5 mg/kg PO q48 h) and meloxicam (0.05 mg/kg PO q24 h) on felineplatelet aggregation. Each medication was given to 8 cats for 14 days in a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over design. It was hypothesized that both NSAIDs would decrease platelet aggregation. Outcome measures included oral mucosal bleeding time (OMBT) and whole blood (impedance) aggregometry (WBA) using adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 10 mM) and collagen (5 mg/mL) as agonists. WBA was performed before drug administration on days 0, 7, 15, and 17. OMBT was measured on days 0 and 15. study duration.
At the doses studied, neither meloxicam nor ASA had an inhibitory effect on WBA or OMBT in cats. The use of ASA at the testeddose for platelet inhibition in cats should be reconsidered.