Recognizing and managing pain in small mammals (Proceedings)

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Recognizing and managing pain in small mammals (Proceedings)

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Aug 01, 2010

Physiologic "Stress" Response to Pain
      - Vasoconstriction
      -Increased Heart Rate and Stroke Volume
      -Decreased GI & Urinary Tone
      -Physiologic "Stress" Response to Pain:
      -Endocrine Responses
      -Nociceptive Stimulation of Brain
      - Enhance Reflex Sympathetic Responses
      -Immune Suppression
      -Impaired Wound Healing
      -Decreased Food & Water Intake
      -Secondary Medical Problems
      -Gastric ulcers GI Stasis
      -Shock
      -Death
• Higher rate of anesthetic death in exotics?
• Higher rate of death postoperatively?
How is this related to inadequate use of pre, intra & postoperative analgesics in prey species????? Stress???


Painful Disease Processes
Behaviors Associated with Pain in Small Mammals
      -Predators such as ferrets are more likely to show overt signs of pain
      -Prey species such as rabbits and guinea pigs are less likely to show overt signs of pain
      -Half-closed/dull/unfocused eyes
      -Aggressive when normally docile
      -Pressing abdomen on the floor
      -Immobility/Lethargy/Isolation
      -Fewer, smaller or no fecal pellets
      -Vocalization (squeal may be fear in rabbits)
      -Increased frequency and depth of respirations or rapid shallow breathing
      -Polyuria/Polydipsia (especially w/GI pain)
      -Teeth grinding (bruxism)                                          Lameness/Ataxia
      -Reluctance to curl when sleeping (ferrets)                 Anorexia
      -Stretching w/back arched                                        Hunched posture
      -Tucked appearance                                               Chewing at affected site
      -Strained facial expression w/bulging eyes                Piloerection
      -Head extended and elevated                                   Stiff movements
      -Stinting on palpation                                               Self-mutilation
      -Porphyrin secretion (stress)                                      Squinting (especially ferrets)