Reproductive emergencies in the mare (Proceedings)

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Reproductive emergencies in the mare (Proceedings)

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Aug 01, 2008

Occurrence

• Breeding

o Rectal tears

• Palpation

• Penetration by stallion

o Vaginal tears

• Penetration by stallion

• Peri-parturient

o Dystocia

o Hemorrhage

o Uterine

• Torsion

• Prolapse

• Rupture / tear

• Retained fetal membranes

• Metritis

o Vagina

• Rectovaginal tears

o Gastro-intestinal

• Damage to viscera

• Rectal prolapse

Breeding associated emergencies

• Rectal tears

o Associated with:

• Palpation

• Penile penetration of rectum by stallion

o Signs

• "Feeling" of release of rectal tissue around arm

• Blood on sleeve or penis

• Onset of shock

• Signs of peritonitis

• Usually colic

• Straining to defecate

o Types

• Grade 1

• Involves only rectal mucosa and submucosa

• Grade 2

• Through muscular layer

• Mucosa and submucosa intact

• No bleeding

• Forms diverticulum

• Grade 3a

• Only serosal layer is intact

• Grade 3b

• Occurs dorsally

• Mesorectum and retroperitoneal tissues are intact

• Grade 4

• All layers disrupted

• Fecal contamination of peritoneum

o Incidence

• Most occur dorsally

• 15 – 55 cm from the anus

• In one retrospective study of 85 horses with rectal tears (Eastman TG et al Equine Vet Edu 2000 12(5):263-266.)

• 4⅞ 5 associated with routine pregnancy exams

• Grade 1 - 93% survived to discharge

• Grade 2 – 66% (2/3) survived to discharge

• Grade 3a – 70%

• Grade 3b – 69%

• Grade 4 – 6%

• Few cases of penile penetration in literature

• 2 at MDS-EMC in last 5 years

• Both lateral wall

• Grade 3b