Small animal thoracic radiology: Pulmonary edema vs. pleural effusion (lines and buckets) (Proceedings)
Pulmonary patterns have the bane of radiology since the beginning (1896 that is). The most difficult concept to teach and the most difficult to learn, yet, the pattern itself is only part of the puzzle. The recognition that the disease is actual within the pulmonary parenchyma and not in the pleural space, extrathoracic structures or the mediastinum is the first step. To this end we will review a basic interpretation paradigm and look at the steps for evaluating the thoracic radiograph in dogs and cats. Technique and positioning are critical in this process and should be the cornerstone for high quality thoracic radiographs. Finally, we will tackle pulmonary patterns with an emphasis on describing what is on the thoracic radiographs and equally important, recognizing anything that is missing.
Objectives of the Presentation
1. Understand the different radiographic features of pleural effusion and pulmonary edema (cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic).
1. Technical factors including technique, phase of respiration and the positioning of the patient have to be taken into account when interpreting thoracic radiographs.
Key Clinical Diagnostic Points
1. One should try to compartmentalize radiographic abnormalities into extrathoracic, pleural, pulmonary and mediastinal (including cardiac), recognizing that any disease can have multicompartmental components.