Spay/neuter in unusual cases (cryptorchidism, mammary hyperplasia, etc.) (Proceedings)
Not all spays and neuters are "routine." Cryptorchids, hermaphrodites, uterus unicornis, mammary hyperplasia and lactation may present surgical challenges, but approaches to each of these unusual cases are actually quite simple.
Uterus unicornis is congenital absence of one horn of the uterus, but both ovaries are always present. So when performing a spay and discovering that one uterine horn is absent you must search for the 2nd ovary. It will be in the normal location and, if a broad ligament is present is rather easy to find. If no broad ligament is present on the involved side use of the biological retractors will help localize the ovary.Cryptorchidism
Cryptorchism is defined as the failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum. The cryptorchid testicle can be located anywhere along the path from the area of fetal development of the gonads (just caudal to the caudal pole of the kidney) to the subcutaneous tissue between the external inguinal ring and the scrotum. Thus a cryptorchid testicle can be located in the abdominal cavity, in the inguinal canal, or in the subcutaneous tissue between the external inguinal ring and the scrotum.
Testicles should be easily palpated in the scrotum of dogs and cats greater than 2 - 4 months of age. If one or both testicles are not located in the scrotum careful palpation will reveal which testicle(s) are involved and whether the testicle(s) are located in the subcutaneous tissue. Failure to palpate a testicle in the scrotum or the subcutaneous tissue leads to a presumptive diagnosis of abdominal cryptorchidism. Palpation of the testicle in the subcutaneous tissue leads to a diagnosis of subcutaneous cryptorchidism.
If the cryptorchid testicle is palpated in the subcutaneous tissue, incision directly over the testicle will allow exposure and removal of the testicle.