Ultrasound case studies (Proceedings)
Ultrasound examinations are becoming routine standard of care in veterinary medicine. Due to the non-invasive nature of the modality, the general affordability of the hardware and the growing amount of continuing education to train general practitioners and veterinary technicians on the technical aspects of scanning, ultrasound is becoming the modality of choice, especially when examining the abdomen. Unlike any other modality available in veterinary medicine, ultrasound requires not just technical skill to obtain quality images and perform a thorough examination, but also requires real-time image recognition and understanding of pathophysiology to insure that pathologic processes are not overlooked. The purpose of this lecture is to show the diversity of disease processes and the thought process used to evaluate ultrasound images of common abdominal diseases in small animals.
• Case 1: 8 year old domestic short haired cat with vomiting for 5 days. This case shows the appearance of a small intestinal foreign body obstruction.
• Case 2: 11 year old Persian Cat with hypertension and retinal detachment. This case shows the appearance of polycystic disease of the kidneys and liver.• Case 3: 4 year old Collie with acute onset of vomiting and evaluated renal values. This case shows enlarged, hyperechoic kidneys seen with acute glomerulonephritis. In this patient it was secondary to ethylene glycol intoxication.
• Case 4: 11 year old Bengal cat with a 1 year history of renal insufficiency. This case compares radiographs to ultrasound to evaluate renal disease and shows a chronic hydronephrosis and renal atrophy from chronic renal disease.
• Case 5: 3 year old Jack Russell Terrier with a soft tissue swelling on the right side and a mild fever. This case shows the appearance of a foreign body within the body wall. Radiographs were obtained first and will be discussed.
• Case 6: 7 year old Jack Russell Terrier with a 2 month history of diarrhea and a distended abdomen. This case shows the appearance of echoic peritoneal fluid as well as the ultrasound appearance of lymphangectasia seen with protein losing enteritis.
• Case 7: 8 year old domestic short haired cat with intermittent vomiting for 5 days and painful cranial abdomen. This case will compare the radiographic and ultrasound appearance of pancreatitis.
• Case 8: 11 year old Shetland Sheepdog with intermittent vomiting that has progressed over the past 5 days. This case shows the classic appearance of a mucocele.
• Case 9: 7 year old Jack Russell Terrier with a 3 week history of palpable peripheral lymph nodes. This case shows the appearance of hepatic, splenic and lymph node involvement seen with lymphoma. The discussion of hypoechoic verse hyperechoic nodules will be addressed.
• Case 10: 8 year mixed breed dog with a 3 week history of hematuria and possibly thick urethra. This case shows the appearance of a blood clot in the urinary bladder, hemorrhage in the urine and a thick urethra with dystrophic mineralization seen with adenocarcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma. The benefits of thoracic radiographs will also be discussed.
• Case 11: 14 year old Labrador Retriever that is recumbent with cervical pain, azotemia and pitting edema in the pelvic limbs. The ultrasound appearance of a blood clot in the caudal vena cava will be shown and the discussion of multiple thrombosis will be discussed.
• Case 12: 13 year old male castrated mixed breed dog with a 3 day history of vomiting and diarrhea. This case will show the appearance of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. Discussion of other adrenal tumor types will also be covered.
• Case 13: 7 year old spayed female Bichon Frise with vomiting and lethargy. This case shows the appearance of non-specific liver changes. The case will allow discussion of the limitations of ultrasound and the usefulness of fine needle aspiration.
• Case 14: 13 year old castrated male domestic short haired cat with vomiting and watery diarrhea. This case will show the appearance of lymphoma with discussion on the similarity with inflammatory bowel disease.
• Case 15: 8 year old male castrated Standard Poodle with an acute onset of mild hematuria. Radiographs and ultrasound will be used to show the appearance of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
• Case 16: 8 year old castrated male Shetland Sheepdog with dysuria for 2 months. This case will show the appearance of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder with secondary hydronephrosis and hydroureter.
• Case 17: 10 year old Shetland Sheepdog with thick foot pads and hyperpigmentation as well as increased liver values. This case shows the classic ultrasound appearance of the liver and will discuss hepatocutaneous syndrome.
• Case 18: 3 year old spayed female mixed breed dog with acute onset of vomiting. This case will show the appearance of a non-obstructing foreign body and pneumoperitoneum.
• Case 19: 14 year old domestic short haired cat with a suspected sub-retinal mass. This final case will show an overview of radiographs and the complimenting ultrasound examination to arrive at a final diagnosis of intestinal adenocarcinoma with disseminated metastatic disease.